CCNA1 R&S Chapter 5

Date Subject Lesson Plan
01/03/17 CCNA1 Discussion: Chapter 5 Tour

Discussion: 5.0.1.1-5.0.1.2
Video: Professor Messer: Ethernet Standards (7:45)
Activity: Join My Social Circle
Activity: Subnet Problem #4
Assignment: Binary to Hexidecimal Worksheet
  A+ None today
01/04/17 CCNA1

Video: YouTube: 100-GIG Fiber Network Media Coverage
Discussion: 5.1.1.1

  • Ethernet operates at layers 1 & 2 of OSI
  • There are two ethernet standards
  • Two sublayers:
    • LLC & MAC (know their role!)

Discussion: 5.1.1.2

  • MAC sublayer has two primary responsibilities (know these!)
  • Frame can be broken down into 3 basic categories
    • Frame delimiting, Addressing, Error Detection

Discussion: 5.1.1.3

  • Historical progression of Ethernet
  • Frame can be further broken down into six fields

Discussion: 5.1.1.4 Ethernet Frame Fields

  • Memorize the min-max size of a frame
  • Be prepared to describe each of the frame fields

Activities: 5.1.1.5 - 5.1.1.6 Do both activities until you can get them all correct

Lab: 5.1.1.7 Using Wireshark to Examine Ethernet Frames

Assignment: Study Guide 1-14

If you have any extra time, use it to prepare for BPA contests. Contests list is on the CNA shared drive in BPA folder.

  A+ None today
01/05/17 CCNA1

Discussion: 5.1.2.1 MAC Address and Hexidecimal

  • MAC address is 48 bits long in hexidecimal
  • Hexidecimal character represents four bits
  • Hexidecimal represented by: Ox, H, or h
  • Hexidecimal used for IPv6 (128 bits)
  • Know how to covert to/from hexidecimal

Discussion: -5.1.2.2 MAC Address: Ethernet Identity

  • OUI - Organizational Unique Identifier
  • First three bytes
  • MAC addresses MUST be unique in every LAN

Discussion: 5.1.2.3 Frame Processing

  • BIA - Burned in Address (ROM chip)
  • Can assign MAC in modern devices
  • Devices will only receive frames with its MAC, Multicast MAC, Broadcast MAC

Discussion: 5.1.2.4 MAC Address Representation

  • MAC address can be represented:
    • Using dashes
    • Using colons
    • Using period
  • Use command: ipconfig /all to view MAC address on Windows
  • Use command: ifconfig to view MAC on MAC or Linux

Discussion: 5.1.2.5 Unicast MAC Address

Discussion 5.1.2.6 Broacast MAC Address

  • FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF
  • 48 ones in binary

Discussion: 5.1.2.7 Multicast MAC Address

  • IP (class D) 224.0.0.0 tp 239.255.255.255
  • MAC starts with 01-00-5E (OUI portion of address)

(Run through following lab in Packet Tracer first - then send to lab)
Lab: 5.1.2.8 Viewing Network Device MAC Addresses

Assignment: Study Guide 15-24
Homework Assignment: Study for Section 1 Quiz

  A+ None today
01/06/17 CCNA1

Quiz: Chapter 5, Section 1

  A+

Start Chapter 4: Preventive Maintenance
Discussion: 4.0.1.1 (q. 1)

  • What is troubleshooting?

Discussion: 4.1.1.1 Benefits of Preventive Maintenance (q. 2-4)

  • Preventive mainenance decisions based on:
    • Computer location or environment
    • Computer use
  • Preventive maintenance:
    • Improves data protection
    • Extends the life of the components
    • Improves equipment stability
    • Reduces the number of equipment failures

Discussion: 4.1.1.2 Preventive Maintenance Tasks (q. 5-7)

  • Address tasks for Hardware:
    • Remove dust from fans.
    • Remove dust from the power supply.
    • Remove dust from the components inside the computer and peripheral equipment, such as printers.
    • Clean the mouse, keyboard, and display.
    • Check for and secure any loose cables.
  • Address tasks for Software:
    • Review and install the appropriate security updates.
    • Review and install the appropriate software updates.
    • Review and install the appropriate driver updates.
    • Update the virus definition files.
    • Scan for viruses and spyware.
    • Remove unwanted or unused programs.
    • Scan hard drives for errors.
    • Optimize (defragment) hard drives

Discussion: 4.1.1.3 Clean the Case and Internal Components (q. 8-11)

  • Heat sink and fan assembly
  • RAM
  • Adapter cards
  • Motherboard
  • Fans
  • Power supply
  • Internal drives

Discussion: 4.1.1.4 Inspect the Internal Components (q. 12-13)

Discussion: 4.1.1.5 Environmetal Concerns (q. 14-15)

  • Allow devices to warm/cool before operating them
    • Don't leave in auto outside
    • Condensation can short circuits
    Assignment: Chapter 4 Study Guide 1-15
    Homework: Study for Chapter 4, Section 1 Quiz
01/09/17 CCNA1

None today

  A+

Quiz: Chapter 4, Section 1
Section 2: Intro to Troubleshooting
Video: Professor Messer: Troubleshooting Common Hardware Problems (15:19)
Discussion: 4.2.1.1 Intro to Troubleshooting Process (q. 16-23)

  • Many companies require computer owner to sign liability waiver or pay for backup
    • Can be sued for great sums of money

Discussion 4.2.1.2 Step 1: Identify the Problem (q. 24-34)

  • Conversation Etiquette
  • Open/Closed type questions
  • Documenting responses
  • Beep Codes
  • BIOS Information
  • Event Viewer
  • Device Manager
  • Task Manager
  • Diagnostic Tools

Activity: 4.2.1.3 Identify the Problem (make sure you can use open/closed ?'s with ease!)

Discussion: 4.2.1.4 Step 2: Establish a Theory of Probable Cause (q. 35-37)

Discussion 4.2.1.5 Step 3: Test the Theory to Determine Cause (q. 38-39)

Discussion 4.2.1.6 Step 4: Establish a Plan to Implement the Solution (q. 40)

Discussion: 4.2.1.7 Step 5: Verify Full System Functionality (q. 41-42)

Discussion 4.2.1.8 Step 6: Document the Findings (q. 43-46)

Discussion 4.2.2.1 Common PC Problems and Solutions (q. 47-52)

Discussion 4.3.1.1 Summary (q. 53)

Assignment: Chapter 4 Study Guide 16-53 Finish
Homework: Study for Chapter 4 Test

01/10/17 CCNA1

Discussion: 5.2.1.1 Switch Fundamentals (q. 25)

  • Switch and bridges are layer 2 devices
    • Uses MAC address table to make forwarding decisions
    • MAC address table is empty when switch first turned on
    • Must learn mac addresses of attached devices
  • MAC address table is sometimes called CAM table or switching table.

Discussion: 5.2.1.2 Learning MAC Addresses (q. 26)

  • MAC address table is empty at switch start-up
  • MAC address table is filled in by inspection of SOURCE MAC ADDRESS of frame
  • If address is already there, the timer is refreshed. by default 5 minutes.
  • If destination MAC address is unknown, switch floods frame out of all ports except one received on.
  • If destination is broadcast or multicast, is also sent out all ports except incoming port.

Discussion: 5.2.1.3 Filtering Frames

  • As MAC table becomes populated with MAC addresses, switch can direct frames to specific interfaces by matching destination MAC addresses with table entries.
  • This allows multiple connections at the same time.
  • Conserves bandwidth for other uses/connections.

Video 5.2.1.4 MAC Address Tables (3:09)

Video 5.2.1.5 Sending a Frame to the Default Gateway (3:01) (q. 27)

Activity 5.2.1.6 Switch It! PRACTICE UNTIL YOU ARE AN EXPERT AT THIS!!!!

  • This is the best learning tool in the entire academy
  • Slight learning curve to use it
  • Make sure you can predict switch operations with ease!!
  • Keep practicing until you have done all the problems - about 20 of them
  A+ Turn in study guide
Test: Chapter 4
01/11/17 CCNA1

Lab: 5.2.1.7 Viewing the Switch MAC Address Table

Discussion: 5.2.2.1 Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches (q. 28)

  • Two forms of switching can be used:
    • Store-and-forward switching
    • Cut-through switching
  • Store-and-forward uses CRC (is value of algorithim of bit 1's in the frame)
  • Store-and-forward is required for QOS communication
  • If lots of errors, switches can dynamically set themselves for Store-and-Forward

Discussion 5.2.2.2 Cut-Through Switching (q. 29)

  • Cut-through uses one of two methods:
    • Fast-forward switching
      • Sends as soon as destination MAC learned
    • Fragment-free switching
      • Sends as soon as destibation MAC learned, and
      • That the frame is at least 64 bytes long

Discussion 5.2.2.3 Memory Buffering on Switches (q. 30)

  • Switches can buffer frames when there is end device congestion
    • Such as NIC speed is slower than switch port speed
  • Two types of switch buffering:
    • Port-based Memory Buffering
    • Shared Memory Buffering

Activity 5.2.2.4 (1 & 2) Frame Forwarding Methods

Discussion: 5.2.3.1 Duplex and Speed Settings (q. 32-35)

  • Two common settings each port:
    • Duplex
    • Speed
  • Usually set to dynamically learn on own
  • Error condition can be a Duplex Mismatch. User experiences slow connection.

Discussion: 5.2.3.2 Auto-MDIX (q. 36)

  • Do not rely on Auto-MDIX
    • Networkers MUST know and use correct cables.

Assignment: Study Guide 25-41
Homework: Study for Section 2 Quiz

  A+ None today
01/12/17 CCNA1

Quiz: Section 2
Discussion: 5.3.1.1 Destination on Same Network

  • Hosts use combo of IP address & subnet mask to determine destination local or remote
  • All frames contain source & destination MAC and IP address.
  • Local destination is on same network

Discussion: 5.3.1.2 Destination Remote Network

  • Remote destination is when the IP/subnet mask combo are on another network
  • Packets are sent to the default gatreway of the router

PT: 5.3.1.3 Identify MAC and IP Addresses (30 min)

Discussion 5.3.2.1 Introduction to ARP

  • ARP - Address Resolution Protocol
  • Destination IP are generally known (by virtue of DNS). Not so for MAC addresses.
  • ARP discovers what destination MAC is associated with destination IP address.
  • ARP maintains table of IP to MAC address mappings.

Discussion 5.3.2.2 ARP Functions

  • When destination MAC isn't already known, ARP discovers with an ARP request packet
  • Only host recognizing own IP address responds to ARP request
  • Sends its MAC address back to sending host.
  • If destination is on another network, the default gateway sends its MAC address instead.
  • The ARP table remembers (caches) these learned MAC/IP combo addresses for a time.

Video 5.3.2.3 ARP Request (2:55)

  • ARP requests don't have a destination MAC address because MAC address isn't known at this point. Destination MAC address field is empty.
  • ARP requests are broadcast and use destination MAC address of all F's.
  • ARP frames have a TYPE field value of Ox806 (can see it in Wireshark)
  • Routers DO NOT send out broadcasts.

Video 5.3.2.4 ARP Reply (1:57)

  • Only the device recognizing own IP address responds to ARP request.
  • Sends back its MAC address using unicast.
  • If no response, frame is dropped.
  • Similar process in IPv6 environment.

Video 5.3.2.5 ARP Role in Remote Communication (3:02)

  • In remote communications, the default gateway sends back MAC to sending host.

Discussion 5.3.2.6 Removing Entries from an ARP Table

  • You can clear ARP table entries manually.
  • ARP entries are normally only saved for two minutes and then flushed.

Discussion 5.3.2.7 ARP Tables

  • To view ARP table in Windows, use arp -a command.
  • To view ARP table in a router, use show ip arp command.

Assignment: Study Guide 44 (Turn in today)

  A+ None today
01/13/17 CCNA1

Review Video: CBTNugg 100-101 #09 Welcome to the World of Switching (33:55)

PT: 5.3.2.8 Examine ARP Table

Discussion 5.3.3.1 ARP Broadcasts

  • ARP broadcasts add to early morning network congestion

Discussion 5.3.3.2 ARP Spoofing

  • ARP creates a security vulnerability called ARP Spoofing/ARP Poisoning
    • Attacker responds to ARP requests with own MAC address to capture frames
    • This is one of the dangers of rogue routers on networks
  • Can also be used in DOS attack

Video: YouTube: How Switches Learn MAC Addresses

Activity: 5.4.1.1 MAC and Choose. (Disregard collecting three old pictures.View them, but don't print them out please)

Discussion 5.4.1.2 Summary

Resource: Fields of a Frame

Video: Cisco Netacad Routing and Switching v6.0 - Chapter 5 (20:10)

Activity: Distribute Chapter 5 Test Study
Assignment: Finish Chapt 5 Study Guide
Homework Assignment: Study for Chapter 5 Test

  A+ None today
01/17/17 CCNA1 2nd Grading Period Binder Due
Discussion: 5.4.1.2 Summary
Test Chapter 5
  A+ Start Chapter 7
Hand out Chapter 7 Study Guides
Discussion: 7.1.1.1-7.1.2.1
Assignment: Chapter 7 Study Guide 1-27
01/18/17 CCNA1

Chapt 1-5 Midterm Exam
Make up & BPA Prep

  A+ Turn in binders
Chapt 1-4 Midterm Exam
01/19/17 CCNA1 Turn in binders
Make up & BPA Prep
  A+

Midterm Exam

  Resources

CCNA Chapter 5 Review PowerPoint
A+ Chapter 4 Review PowerPoint

IP Addressing and Subnetting for New Users
What is APIPA?